view doc/intprops.texi @ 16464:2a3849cfe7b9

Tests for module 'modf-ieee'. * modules/modf-ieee-tests: New file. * tests/test-modf-ieee.c: New file.
author Bruno Haible <bruno@clisp.org>
date Sun, 26 Feb 2012 17:55:21 +0100
parents a712776b11ce
children 4e33322b32f8
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@node Integer Properties
@section Integer Properties

@c Copyright (C) 2011-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@c Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
@c under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
@c any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
@c Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
@c Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the ``GNU Free
@c Documentation License'' file as part of this distribution.

@c Written by Paul Eggert.

@cindex integer properties

The @code{intprops} module consists of an include file @code{<intprops.h>}
that defines several macros useful for testing properties of integer
types.

@cindex integer overflow
@cindex overflow, integer

Integer overflow is a common source of problems in programs written in
C and other languages.  In some cases, such as signed integer
arithmetic in C programs, the resulting behavior is undefined, and
practical platforms do not always behave as if integers wrap around
reliably.  In other cases, such as unsigned integer arithmetic in C,
the resulting behavior is well-defined, but programs may still
misbehave badly after overflow occurs.

Many techniques have been proposed to attack these problems.  These
include precondition testing, GCC's @option{-ftrapv} option, GCC's
no-undefined-overflow branch, the As-if Infinitely Ranged (AIR) model
implemented in Clang, saturation semantics where overflow reliably
yields an extreme value, the RICH static transformer to an
overflow-checking variant, and special testing methods.  For more
information about these techniques, see: Dannenberg R, Dormann W,
Keaton D @emph{et al.},
@url{http://www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/reports/10tn008.cfm,
As-if Infinitely Ranged integer model -- 2nd ed.}, Software Engineering
Institute Technical Note CMU/SEI-2010-TN-008, April 2010.

Gnulib supports the precondition testing technique, as this is easy to
support portably.  There are two families of precondition tests: the
first, for integer ranges, has a simple and straightforward implementation,
while the second, for integer types, is easier to use.

@menu
* Integer Type Determination::  Whether a type has integer properties.
* Integer Bounds::              Bounds on integer values and representations.
* Integer Range Overflow::      Integer overflow checking if bounds are known.
* Integer Type Overflow::       General integer overflow checking.
@end menu

@node Integer Type Determination
@subsection Integer Type Determination

@findex TYPE_IS_INTEGER
@code{TYPE_IS_INTEGER (@var{t})} expands to a constant
expression that is 1 if the arithmetic type @var{t} is an integer type.
@code{_Bool} counts as an integer type.

@findex TYPE_SIGNED
@code{TYPE_SIGNED (@var{t})} expands to a constant expression
that is 1 if the arithmetic type @var{t} is a signed integer type or a
floating type.  If @var{t} is an integer type, @code{TYPE_SIGNED (@var{t})}
expands to an integer constant expression.

Example usage:

@example
#include <intprops.h>
#include <time.h>
enum
@{
  time_t_is_signed_integer =
    TYPE_IS_INTEGER (time_t) && TYPE_SIGNED (time_t)
@};
@end example

@node Integer Bounds
@subsection Integer Bounds

@cindex integer bounds

@findex INT_BUFSIZE_BOUND
@code{INT_BUFSIZE_BOUND (@var{t})} expands to an integer constant
expression that is a bound on the size of the string representing an
integer type or expression @var{t} in decimal notation, including the
terminating null character and any leading @code{-} character.  For
example, if @code{INT_STRLEN_BOUND (int)} is 12, any value of type
@code{int} can be represented in 12 bytes or less, including the
terminating null.  The bound is not necessarily tight.

Example usage:

@example
#include <intprops.h>
#include <stdio.h>
int
int_strlen (int i)
@{
  char buf[INT_BUFSIZE_BOUND (int)];
  return sprintf (buf, "%d", i);
@}
@end example

@findex INT_STRLEN_BOUND
@code{INT_STRLEN_BOUND (@var{t})} expands to an integer constant
expression that is a bound on the length of the string representing an
integer type or expression @var{t} in decimal notation, including any
leading @code{-} character.  This is one less than
@code{INT_BUFSIZE_BOUND (@var{t})}.

@findex TYPE_MINIMUM
@findex TYPE_MAXIMUM
@code{TYPE_MINIMUM (@var{t})} and @code{TYPE_MAXIMUM (@var{t})} expand
to integer constant expressions equal to the minimum and maximum
values of the integer type @var{t}.  These expressions are of the type
@var{t} (or more precisely, the type @var{t} after integer
promotions).

Example usage:

@example
#include <stdint.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <intprops.h>
int
in_off_t_range (intmax_t a)
@{
  return TYPE_MINIMUM (off_t) <= a && a <= TYPE_MAXIMUM (off_t);
@}
@end example

@node Integer Range Overflow
@subsection Integer Range Overflow

@cindex integer range overflow
@cindex overflow, integer range

These macros yield 1 if the corresponding C operators might not yield
numerically correct answers due to arithmetic overflow.  They do not
rely on undefined or implementation-defined behavior.  They expand to
integer constant expressions if their arguments are.  Their
implementations are simple and straightforward, but they are typically
harder to use than the integer type overflow macros.  @xref{Integer
Type Overflow}.

Although the implementation of these macros is similar to that
suggested in Seacord R, The CERT C Secure Coding Standard (2009,
revised 2011), in its two sections
``@url{https://www.securecoding.cert.org/confluence/display/seccode/INT30-C.+Ensure+that+unsigned+integer+operations+do+not+wrap,
INT30-C. Ensure that unsigned integer operations do not wrap}'' and
``@url{https://www.securecoding.cert.org/confluence/display/seccode/INT32-C.+Ensure+that+operations+on+signed+integers+do+not+result+in+overflow,
INT32-C. Ensure that operations on signed integers do not result in
overflow}'', Gnulib's implementation was derived independently of
CERT's suggestions.

Example usage:

@example
#include <intprops.h>
void
print_product (long int a, long int b)
@{
  if (INT_MULTIPLY_RANGE_OVERFLOW (a, b, LONG_MIN, LONG_MAX))
    printf ("multiply would overflow");
  else
    printf ("product is %ld", a * b);
@}
@end example

@noindent
These macros have the following restrictions:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Their arguments must be integer expressions.

@item
They may evaluate their arguments zero or multiple times, so
the arguments should not have side effects.

@item
The arithmetic arguments (including the @var{min} and @var{max}
arguments) must be of the same integer type after the usual arithmetic
conversions, and the type must have minimum value @var{min} and
maximum @var{max}.  Unsigned values should use a zero @var{min} of the
proper type, for example, @code{(unsigned int) 0}.
@end itemize

These macros are tuned for constant @var{min} and @var{max}.  For
commutative operations such as @code{@var{a} + @var{b}}, they are also
tuned for constant @var{b}.

@table @code
@item INT_ADD_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_ADD_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} + @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.

@item INT_SUBTRACT_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_SUBTRACT_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} - @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.

@item INT_NEGATE_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_NEGATE_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{-@var{a}} would overflow in [@var{min},@var{max}]
integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.

@item INT_MULTIPLY_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_MULTIPLY_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} * @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.

@item INT_DIVIDE_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_DIVIDE_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} / @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.
Division overflow can happen on two's complement hosts when dividing
the most negative integer by @minus{}1.  This macro does not check for
division by zero.

@item INT_REMAINDER_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_REMAINDER_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} % @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.
Remainder overflow can happen on two's complement hosts when dividing
the most negative integer by @minus{}1; although the mathematical
result is always 0, in practice some implementations trap, so this
counts as an overflow.  This macro does not check for division by
zero.

@item INT_LEFT_SHIFT_RANGE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b}, @var{min}, @var{max})
@findex INT_LEFT_SHIFT_RANGE_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} << @var{b}} would overflow in
[@var{min},@var{max}] integer arithmetic.  See above for restrictions.
Here, @var{min} and @var{max} are for @var{a} only, and @var{b} need
not be of the same type as the other arguments.  The C standard says
that behavior is undefined for shifts unless 0@leq{}@var{b}<@var{w}
where @var{w} is @var{a}'s word width, and that when @var{a} is negative
then @code{@var{a} << @var{b}} has undefined behavior and
@code{@var{a} >> @var{b}} has implementation-defined behavior, but
this macro does not check these other restrictions.
@end table

@node Integer Type Overflow
@subsection Integer Type Overflow

@cindex integer type overflow
@cindex overflow, integer type

These macros yield 1 if the corresponding C operators might not yield
numerically correct answers due to arithmetic overflow of an integer
type.  They work correctly on all known practical hosts, and do not
rely on undefined behavior due to signed arithmetic overflow.  They
expand to integer constant expressions if their arguments are.  They
are easier to use than the integer range overflow macros
(@pxref{Integer Range Overflow}).

Example usage:

@example
#include <intprops.h>
void
print_product (long int a, long int b)
@{
  if (INT_MULTIPLY_OVERFLOW (a, b))
    printf ("multiply would overflow");
  else
    printf ("product is %ld", a * b);
@}
@end example

@noindent
These macros have the following restrictions:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Their arguments must be integer expressions.

@item
They may evaluate their arguments zero or multiple times, so the
arguments should not have side effects.
@end itemize

These macros are tuned for their last argument being a constant.

@table @code
@item INT_ADD_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_ADD_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} + @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.

@item INT_SUBTRACT_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_SUBTRACT_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} - @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.

@item INT_NEGATE_OVERFLOW (@var{a})
@findex INT_NEGATE_OVERFLOW
Yields 1 if @code{-@var{a}} would overflow.  See above for restrictions.

@item INT_MULTIPLY_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_MULTIPLY_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} * @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.

@item INT_DIVIDE_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_DIVIDE_OVERFLOW
Yields 1 if @code{@var{a} / @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.  Division overflow can happen on two's complement hosts
when dividing the most negative integer by @minus{}1.  This macro does
not check for division by zero.

@item INT_REMAINDER_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_REMAINDER_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} % @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.  Remainder overflow can happen on two's complement hosts
when dividing the most negative integer by @minus{}1; although the
mathematical result is always 0, in practice some implementations
trap, so this counts as an overflow.  This macro does not check for
division by zero.

@item INT_LEFT_SHIFT_OVERFLOW (@var{a}, @var{b})
@findex INT_LEFT_SHIFT_OVERFLOW
Yield 1 if @code{@var{a} << @var{b}} would overflow.  See above for
restrictions.  The C standard says that behavior is undefined for
shifts unless 0@leq{}@var{b}<@var{w} where @var{w} is @var{a}'s word
width, and that when @var{a} is negative then @code{@var{a} <<
@var{b}} has undefined behavior and @code{@var{a} >> @var{b}} has
implementation-defined behavior, but this macro does not check these
other restrictions.
@end table