view doc/verify.texi @ 16464:2a3849cfe7b9

Tests for module 'modf-ieee'. * modules/modf-ieee-tests: New file. * tests/test-modf-ieee.c: New file.
author Bruno Haible <bruno@clisp.org>
date Sun, 26 Feb 2012 17:55:21 +0100
parents 91f53c1e1787
children e542fd46ad6f
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@c GNU verify module documentation

@c Copyright (C) 2006, 2009-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

@c Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
@c under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
@c or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
@c with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
@c Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the ``GNU Free
@c Documentation License'' file as part of this distribution.

@node Compile-time Assertions
@section Compile-time Assertions

@cindex assertion
@findex verify
@findex verify_expr

The @samp{verify} module supports compile-time tests, as opposed to
the standard @code{assert} macro which supports only runtime tests.
Since the tests occur at compile-time, they are more reliable, and
they require no runtime overhead.

This module provides a header file @file{verify.h} that defines two
macros: @code{verify (@var{V})} and @code{verify_expr
(@var{V}, @var{EXPR})}.  Both accept an integer constant expression
argument @var{V} and verify that it is nonzero.  If not, a compile-time error
results.

@code{verify (@var{V});} is a declaration; it can occur outside of
functions.  In contrast, @code{verify_expr (@var{V}, @var{EXPR})} is
an expression that returns the value of @var{EXPR}; it can be used in
macros that expand to expressions.  If @var{EXPR} is an integer
constant expression, then @code{verify_expr (@var{V}, @var{EXPR})} is
also an integer constant expression.  Although @var{EXPR} and
@code{verify_expr (@var{V}, @var{EXPR})}@ are guaranteed to have the
same side effects and value and type (after integer promotion), they
need not have the same type if @var{EXPR}'s type is an integer that is
narrower than @code{int} or @code{unsigned int}.

@var{V} should be an integer constant expression in the sense
of the C standard.  Its leaf operands should be integer, enumeration,
or character constants; or @code{sizeof} expressions that return
constants; or floating constants that are the immediate operands of
casts.  Outside a @code{sizeof} subexpression, @var{V} should
not contain any assignments, function calls, comma operators, casts to
non-integer types, or subexpressions whose values are outside the
representable ranges for their types.  If @var{V} is not an
integer constant expression, then a compiler might reject a usage like
@samp{verify (@var{V});} even when @var{V} is
nonzero.

Although the standard @code{assert} macro is a runtime test, C11
specifies a builtin @code{_Static_assert (@var{V},
@var{STRING-LITERAL})}, its @file{assert.h} header has a similar macro
named @code{static_assert}, and C++11 has a similar
@code{static_assert} builtin.  These builtins and macros differ
from @code{verify} in two major ways.  First, they can also be used
within a @code{struct} or @code{union} specifier, in place of an
ordinary member declaration.  Second, they require the programmer to
specify a compile-time diagnostic as a string literal.

Here are some example uses of @code{verify} and @code{verify_expr}.

@example
#include <verify.h>

#include <limits.h>
#include <time.h>

/* Verify that time_t is an integer type.  */
verify ((time_t) 1.5 == 1);

/* Verify that time_t is no smaller than int.  */
verify (sizeof (int) <= sizeof (time_t));

/* Verify that time_t is signed.  */
verify ((time_t) -1 < 0);

/* Verify that time_t uses two's complement representation.  */
verify (~ (time_t) -1 == 0);

/* Return the maximum value of the integer type T,
   verifying that T is an unsigned integer type.
   The cast to (T) is outside the call to verify_expr
   so that the result is of type T
   even when T is narrower than unsigned int.  */
#define MAX_UNSIGNED_VAL(t) \
   ((T) verify_expr (0 < (T) -1, -1))
@end example