annotate doc/interpreter/basics.txi @ 15545:6a4e79110857 stable

doc: Replace 'on-line' with modern 'online' in documentation and messages. * basics.txi, errors.txi, octave.texi, package.txi, doc.m, __additional_help_message__.m: Replace 'on-line' with 'online'.
author Rik <rik@octave.org>
date Fri, 19 Oct 2012 08:46:06 -0700
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72c96de7a403 maint: update copyright notices for 2012
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1 @c Copyright (C) 1996-2012 John W. Eaton
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2 @c
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3 @c This file is part of Octave.
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4 @c
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5 @c Octave is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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6 @c under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
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7 @c Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at
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8 @c your option) any later version.
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9 @c
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10 @c Octave is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
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11 @c ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
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12 @c FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License
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13 @c for more details.
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14 @c
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15 @c You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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16 @c along with Octave; see the file COPYING. If not, see
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17 @c <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
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18
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19 @node Getting Started
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20 @chapter Getting Started
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21
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22 This chapter explains some of Octave's basic features, including how to
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23 start an Octave session, get help at the command prompt, edit the
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24 command line, and write Octave programs that can be executed as commands
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25 from your shell.
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26
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27 @menu
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28 * Invoking Octave from the Command Line::
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29 * Quitting Octave::
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30 * Getting Help::
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31 * Command Line Editing::
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32 * Errors::
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33 * Executable Octave Programs::
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34 * Comments::
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35 @end menu
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36
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37 @node Invoking Octave from the Command Line
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38 @section Invoking Octave from the Command Line
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39
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40 Normally, Octave is used interactively by running the program
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41 @samp{octave} without any arguments. Once started, Octave reads
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42 commands from the terminal until you tell it to exit.
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43
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44 You can also specify the name of a file on the command line, and Octave
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45 will read and execute the commands from the named file and then exit
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46 when it is finished.
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47
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48 You can further control how Octave starts by using the command-line
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49 options described in the next section, and Octave itself can remind you
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50 of the options available. Type @samp{octave --help} to display all
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51 available options and briefly describe their use (@samp{octave -h} is a
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52 shorter equivalent).
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53
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54 @menu
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55 * Command Line Options::
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56 * Startup Files::
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57 @end menu
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58
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59 @node Command Line Options
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60 @subsection Command Line Options
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61 @cindex Octave command options
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62 @cindex command options
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63 @cindex options, Octave command
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64
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65 Here is a complete list of the command line options that Octave
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66 accepts.
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67
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68
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69 @table @code
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70 @item --debug
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71 @itemx -d
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72 @cindex @code{--debug}
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73 @cindex @code{-d}
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74 Enter parser debugging mode. Using this option will cause Octave's
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75 parser to print a lot of information about the commands it reads, and is
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76 probably only useful if you are actually trying to debug the parser.
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77
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78 @item --doc-cache-file @var{filename}
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79 @cindex @code{--doc-cache-file @var{filename}}
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80 Specify the name of the doc cache file to use. The value of @var{filename}
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81 specified on the command line will override any value of
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82 @w{@env{OCTAVE_DOC_CACHE_FILE}} found in the environment, but not any commands
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83 in the system or user startup files that use the @code{doc_cache_file}
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84 function.
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85
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86 @item --echo-commands
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87 @itemx -x
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88 @cindex @code{--echo-commands}
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89 @cindex @code{-x}
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90 Echo commands as they are executed.
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91
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92 @item --eval @var{code}
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93 Evaluate @var{code} and exit when finished unless @option{--persist} is also
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94 specified.
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95
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96 @item --exec-path @var{path}
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97 @cindex @code{--exec-path @var{path}}
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98 Specify the path to search for programs to run. The value of @var{path}
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99 specified on the command line will override any value of
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100 @w{@env{OCTAVE_EXEC_PATH}} found in the environment, but not any commands
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101 in the system or user startup files that set the built-in variable
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102 @w{@env{EXEC_PATH}}.
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103
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104 @item --help
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105 @itemx -h
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106 @itemx -?
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107 @cindex @code{--help}
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108 @cindex @code{-h}
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109 @cindex @code{-?}
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110 Print short help message and exit.
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111
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112 @item --image-path @var{path}
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113 @cindex @code{--image-path @var{path}}
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114 Add path to the head of the search path for images. The value of
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115 @var{path} specified on the command line will override any value of
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116 @w{@env{OCTAVE_IMAGE_PATH}} found in the environment, but not any commands
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117 in the system or user startup files that set the built-in variable
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118 @w{@env{IMAGE_PATH}}.
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119
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120 @item --info-file @var{filename}
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121 @cindex @code{--info-file @var{filename}}
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122 Specify the name of the info file to use. The value of @var{filename}
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123 specified on the command line will override any value of
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124 @w{@env{OCTAVE_INFO_FILE}} found in the environment, but not any commands
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125 in the system or user startup files that use the @code{info_file}
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126 function.
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127
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128 @item --info-program @var{program}
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129 @cindex @code{--info-program @var{program}}
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130 Specify the name of the info program to use. The value of @var{program}
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131 specified on the command line will override any value of
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132 @w{@env{OCTAVE_INFO_PROGRAM}} found in the environment, but not any
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133 commands in the system or user startup files that use the
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134 @code{info_program} function.
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135
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136 @item --interactive
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137 @itemx -i
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138 @cindex @code{--interactive}
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139 @cindex @code{-i}
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140 Force interactive behavior. This can be useful for running Octave via a
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141 remote shell command or inside an Emacs shell buffer. For another way
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142 to run Octave within Emacs, see @ref{Emacs Octave Support}.
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143
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144 @item --line-editing
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145 @cindex @code{--line-editing}
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146 Force readline use for command-line editing.
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147
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148 @item --no-history
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149 @itemx -H
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150 @cindex @code{--no-history}
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151 @cindex @code{-H}
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152 Disable recording of command-line history.
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153
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154 @item --no-init-file
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155 @cindex @code{--no-init-file}
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156 Don't read the initialization files @file{~/.octaverc} and @file{.octaverc}.
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157
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158 @item --no-init-path
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159 @cindex @code{--no-init-path}
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160 Don't initialize the search path for function files to include default
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161 locations.
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162
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163 @item --no-line-editing
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164 @cindex @code{--no-line-editing}
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165 Disable command-line editing.
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166
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167 @item --no-site-file
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168 @cindex @code{--no-site-file}
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169 Don't read the site-wide @file{octaverc} initialization files.
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170
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171 @item --norc
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172 @itemx -f
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173 @cindex @code{--norc}
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174 @cindex @code{-f}
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175 Don't read any of the system or user initialization files at startup.
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176 This is equivalent to using both of the options @option{--no-init-file}
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177 and @option{--no-site-file}.
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178
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179 @item --path @var{path}
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180 @itemx -p @var{path}
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181 @cindex @code{--path @var{path}}
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182 @cindex @code{-p @var{path}}
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183 Add path to the head of the search path for function files. The
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184 value of @var{path} specified on the command line will override any value
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185 of @w{@env{OCTAVE_PATH}} found in the environment, but not any commands in the
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186 system or user startup files that set the internal load path through one
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187 of the path functions.
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188
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189 @item --persist
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190 @cindex @code{--persist}
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191 Go to interactive mode after @option{--eval} or reading from a file
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192 named on the command line.
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193
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194 @item --silent
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195 @itemx --quiet
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196 @itemx -q
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197 @cindex @code{--silent}
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198 @cindex @code{--quiet}
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199 @cindex @code{-q}
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200 Don't print the usual greeting and version message at startup.
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201
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202 @item --traditional
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203 @itemx --braindead
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204 @cindex @code{--traditional}
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205 @cindex @code{--braindead}
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206 For compatibility with @sc{matlab}, set initial values for
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207 user preferences to the following values
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208
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209 @example
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210 @group
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211 PS1 = ">> "
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212 PS2 = ""
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213 allow_noninteger_range_as_index = true
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214 beep_on_error = true
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215 confirm_recursive_rmdir = false
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216 crash_dumps_octave_core = false
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217 default_save_options = "-mat-binary"
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218 do_braindead_shortcircuit_evaluation = true
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219 fixed_point_format = true
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220 history_timestamp_format_string = "%%-- %D %I:%M %p --%%"
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221 page_screen_output = false
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222 print_empty_dimensions = false
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223 @end group
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224 @end example
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225
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226 @noindent
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227 and disable the following warnings
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228
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229 @example
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230 @group
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231 Octave:abbreviated-property-match
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232 Octave:fopen-file-in-path
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233 Octave:function-name-clash
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234 Octave:load-file-in-path
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235 @end group
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236 @end example
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237
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238 @item --verbose
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239 @itemx -V
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240 @cindex @code{--verbose}
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241 @cindex @code{-V}
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242 Turn on verbose output.
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243
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244 @item --version
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245 @itemx -v
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246 @cindex @code{--version}
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247 @cindex @code{-v}
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248 Print the program version number and exit.
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249
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250 @item @var{file}
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251 Execute commands from @var{file}. Exit when done unless
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252 @option{--persist} is also specified.
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253 @end table
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254
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255 Octave also includes several functions which return information
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256 about the command line, including the number of arguments and all of the
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257 options.
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258
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259 @DOCSTRING(argv)
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260
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261 @DOCSTRING(program_name)
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262
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263 @DOCSTRING(program_invocation_name)
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264
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265 Here is an example of using these functions to reproduce the command
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266 line which invoked Octave.
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267
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268 @example
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269 @group
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270 printf ("%s", program_name ());
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271 arg_list = argv ();
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272 for i = 1:nargin
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273 printf (" %s", arg_list@{i@});
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274 endfor
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275 printf ("\n");
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276 @end group
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277 @end example
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278
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279 @noindent
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280 @xref{Indexing Cell Arrays}, for an explanation of how to retrieve objects
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281 from cell arrays, and @ref{Defining Functions}, for information about the
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282 variable @code{nargin}.
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283
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284 @node Startup Files
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285 @subsection Startup Files
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286 @cindex initialization
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287 @cindex startup
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288
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289 When Octave starts, it looks for commands to execute from the files in
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290 the following list. These files may contain any valid Octave commands,
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291 including function definitions.
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292
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293 @cindex startup files
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294
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295 @table @code
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296 @item @var{octave-home}/share/octave/site/m/startup/octaverc
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297 @cindex site startup file
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298 where @var{octave-home} is the directory in which Octave is installed
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299 (the default is @file{/usr/local}).
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300 This file is provided so that changes to the default Octave environment
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301 can be made globally for all users at your site for all versions of Octave
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302 you have installed. Care should be taken when making changes to this file
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303 since all users of Octave at your site will be affected. The default file
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304 may be overridden by the environment variable @w{@env{OCTAVE_SITE_INITFILE}}.
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305
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306 @item @var{octave-home}/share/octave/@var{version}/m/startup/octaverc
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307 @cindex version startup file
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308 where @var{octave-home} is the directory in which Octave is
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309 installed (the default is @file{/usr/local}), and @var{version}
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310 is the version number of Octave. This file is provided so that changes
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311 to the default Octave environment can be made globally for all users of
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312 a particular version of Octave. Care should be taken when making
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313 changes to this file since all users of Octave at your site will be
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314 affected. The default file may be overridden by the environment variable
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315 @w{@env{OCTAVE_VERSION_INITFILE}}.
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316
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317 @item ~/.octaverc
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318 @cindex personal startup file
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319 @cindex @code{~/.octaverc}
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320 This file is used to make personal changes to the default
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321 Octave environment.
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322
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323 @item .octaverc
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324 @cindex project startup file
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325 @cindex @code{.octaverc}
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326 This file can be used to make changes to the default Octave environment
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327 for a particular project. Octave searches for this file in the current
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328 directory after it reads @file{~/.octaverc}. Any use of the @code{cd}
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329 command in the @file{~/.octaverc} file will affect the directory where
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330 Octave searches for @file{.octaverc}.
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331
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332 If you start Octave in your home directory, commands from the file
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333 @file{~/.octaverc} will only be executed once.
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334 @end table
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335
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336 A message will be displayed as each of the startup files is read if you
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337 invoke Octave with the @option{--verbose} option but without the
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338 @option{--silent} option.
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339
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340 The @code{dump_prefs} function is useful for determining what customizations
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341 to Octave are possible and which are in effect.
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342
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343 @DOCSTRING(dump_prefs)
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344
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345 @node Quitting Octave
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346 @section Quitting Octave
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347 @cindex exiting octave
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348 @cindex quitting octave
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349
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350 @DOCSTRING(quit)
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351
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352 @DOCSTRING(atexit)
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353
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354 @node Getting Help
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355 @section Commands for Getting Help
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356 @cindex online help
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357 @cindex help, online
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358
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359 The entire text of this manual is available from the Octave prompt
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360 via the command @kbd{doc}. In addition, the documentation for
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361 individual user-written functions and variables is also available via
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362 the @kbd{help} command. This section describes the commands used for
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363 reading the manual and the documentation strings for user-supplied
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364 functions and variables. @xref{Function Files}, for more information
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365 about how to document the functions you write.
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366
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367 @DOCSTRING(help)
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368
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369 @DOCSTRING(doc)
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370
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371 @DOCSTRING(lookfor)
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372
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373 To see what is new in the current release of Octave, use the @code{news}
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374 function.
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375
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376 @DOCSTRING(news)
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377
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378 @DOCSTRING(info)
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379
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380 @DOCSTRING(warranty)
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381
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382 The following functions can be used to change which programs are used
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383 for displaying the documentation, and where the documentation can be
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384 found.
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385
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386 @DOCSTRING(info_file)
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387
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388 @DOCSTRING(info_program)
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389
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390 @DOCSTRING(makeinfo_program)
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391
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392 @DOCSTRING(doc_cache_file)
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393
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394 @DOCSTRING(suppress_verbose_help_message)
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395
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396 The following functions are principally used internally by Octave for
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397 generating the documentation. They are documented here for completeness
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398 and because they may occasionally be useful for users.
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399
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400 @DOCSTRING(gen_doc_cache)
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401
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402 @DOCSTRING(get_help_text)
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403
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404 @DOCSTRING(get_help_text_from_file)
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405
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406 @DOCSTRING(get_first_help_sentence)
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407
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408 @node Command Line Editing
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409 @section Command Line Editing
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410 @cindex command-line editing
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411 @cindex editing the command line
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412
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413 Octave uses the GNU Readline library to provide an extensive set of
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414 command-line editing and history features. Only the most common
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415 features are described in this manual. In addition, all of the editing
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416 functions can be bound to different key strokes at the user's discretion.
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417 This manual assumes no changes from the default Emacs bindings. See the GNU
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418 Readline Library manual for more information on customizing Readline and
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419 for a complete feature list.
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420
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421 To insert printing characters (letters, digits, symbols, etc.), simply
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422 type the character. Octave will insert the character at the cursor and
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423 advance the cursor forward.
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424
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425 Many of the command-line editing functions operate using control
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426 characters. For example, the character @kbd{Control-a} moves the cursor
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427 to the beginning of the line. To type @kbd{C-a}, hold down @key{CTRL}
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428 and then press @key{a}. In the following sections, control characters
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429 such as @kbd{Control-a} are written as @kbd{C-a}.
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430
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431 Another set of command-line editing functions use Meta characters. To
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432 type @kbd{M-u}, hold down the @key{META} key and press @key{u}. Depending
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433 on the keyboard, the @key{META} key may be labeled @key{ALT} or
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434 even @key{WINDOWS}. If your terminal does not have a @key{META} key, you
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435 can still type Meta characters using two-character sequences starting
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436 with @kbd{ESC}. Thus, to enter @kbd{M-u}, you would type
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437 @key{ESC} @key{u}. The @kbd{ESC} character sequences are also allowed on
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438 terminals with real Meta keys. In the following sections, Meta
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439 characters such as @kbd{Meta-u} are written as @kbd{M-u}.
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440
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441
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442 @menu
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443 * Cursor Motion::
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444 * Killing and Yanking::
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445 * Commands For Text::
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446 * Commands For Completion::
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447 * Commands For History::
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448 * Customizing readline::
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449 * Customizing the Prompt::
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450 * Diary and Echo Commands::
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451 @end menu
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452
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453 @node Cursor Motion
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454 @subsection Cursor Motion
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455
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456 The following commands allow you to position the cursor.
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457
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458 @table @kbd
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459 @item C-b
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460 Move back one character.
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461
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462 @item C-f
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463 Move forward one character.
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464
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465 @item @key{BACKSPACE}
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466 Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
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467
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468 @item @key{DEL}
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469 Delete the character underneath the cursor.
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470
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471 @item C-d
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472 Delete the character underneath the cursor.
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473
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474 @item M-f
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475 Move forward a word.
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476
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477 @item M-b
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478 Move backward a word.
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479
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480 @item C-a
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481 Move to the start of the line.
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482
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483 @item C-e
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484 Move to the end of the line.
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485
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486 @item C-l
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487 Clear the screen, reprinting the current line at the top.
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488
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489 @item C-_
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490 @itemx C-/
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491 Undo the last action. You can undo all the way back to an empty line.
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492
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493 @item M-r
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494 Undo all changes made to this line. This is like typing the `undo'
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495 command enough times to get back to the beginning.
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496 @end table
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497
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498 The above table describes the most basic possible keystrokes that you need
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499 in order to do editing of the input line. On most terminals, you can
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500 also use the left and right arrow keys in place of @kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}
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501 to move forward and backward.
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502
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503 Notice how @kbd{C-f} moves forward a character, while @kbd{M-f} moves
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504 forward a word. It is a loose convention that control keystrokes
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505 operate on characters while meta keystrokes operate on words.
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506
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507 @cindex clearing the screen
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508
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509 The function @code{clc} will allow you to clear the screen from within
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510 Octave programs.
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511
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512 @DOCSTRING(clc)
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513
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514 @node Killing and Yanking
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515 @subsection Killing and Yanking
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516
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517 @dfn{Killing} text means to delete the text from the line, but to save
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518 it away for later use, usually by @dfn{yanking} it back into the line.
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519 If the description for a command says that it `kills' text, then you can
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520 be sure that you can get the text back in a different (or the same)
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521 place later.
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522
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523 Here is the list of commands for killing text.
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524
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525 @table @kbd
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526 @item C-k
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527 Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the line.
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528
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529 @item M-d
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530 Kill from the cursor to the end of the current word, or if between
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531 words, to the end of the next word.
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532
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533 @item M-@key{DEL}
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534 Kill from the cursor to the start of the previous word, or if between
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535 words, to the start of the previous word.
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536
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537 @item C-w
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538 Kill from the cursor to the previous whitespace. This is different than
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539 @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} because the word boundaries differ.
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540 @end table
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541
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542 And, here is how to @dfn{yank} the text back into the line. Yanking
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543 means to copy the most-recently-killed text from the kill buffer.
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544
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545 @table @kbd
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546 @item C-y
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547 Yank the most recently killed text back into the buffer at the cursor.
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548
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549 @item M-y
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550 Rotate the kill-ring, and yank the new top. You can only do this if
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551 the prior command is @kbd{C-y} or @kbd{M-y}.
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552 @end table
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553
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554 When you use a kill command, the text is saved in a @dfn{kill-ring}.
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555 Any number of consecutive kills save all of the killed text together, so
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556 that when you yank it back, you get it in one clean sweep. The kill
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557 ring is not line specific; the text that you killed on a previously
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558 typed line is available to be yanked back later, when you are typing
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559 another line.
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560
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561 @node Commands For Text
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562 @subsection Commands For Changing Text
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563
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564 The following commands can be used for entering characters that would
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565 otherwise have a special meaning (e.g., @key{TAB}, @kbd{C-q}, etc.), or
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566 for quickly correcting typing mistakes.
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567
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568 @table @kbd
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569 @item C-q
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570 @itemx C-v
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571 Add the next character that you type to the line verbatim. This is
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572 how to insert things like @kbd{C-q} for example.
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573
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574 @item M-@key{TAB}
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575 Insert a tab character.
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576
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577 @item C-t
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578 Drag the character before the cursor forward over the character at the
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579 cursor, also moving the cursor forward. If the cursor is at the end of
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580 the line, then transpose the two characters before it.
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581
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582 @item M-t
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583 Drag the word behind the cursor past the word in front of the cursor
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584 moving the cursor over that word as well.
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585
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586 @item M-u
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587 Uppercase the characters following the cursor to the end of the current
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588 (or following) word, moving the cursor to the end of the word.
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589
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590 @item M-l
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591 Lowercase the characters following the cursor to the end of the current
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592 (or following) word, moving the cursor to the end of the word.
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593
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594 @item M-c
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595 Uppercase the character following the cursor (or the beginning of the
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596 next word if the cursor is between words), moving the cursor to the end
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597 of the word.
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598 @end table
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599
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600 @node Commands For Completion
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601 @subsection Letting Readline Type For You
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602 @cindex command completion
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603
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604 The following commands allow Octave to complete command and variable
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
605 names for you.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
606
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
607 @table @kbd
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
608 @item @key{TAB}
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
609 Attempt to do completion on the text before the cursor. Octave can
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
610 complete the names of commands and variables.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
611
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
612 @item M-?
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
613 List the possible completions of the text before the cursor.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
614 @end table
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
615
3332
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parents: 3294
diff changeset
616 @DOCSTRING(completion_append_char)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
617
3332
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parents: 3294
diff changeset
618 @DOCSTRING(completion_matches)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
619
4167
aae05d51353c [project @ 2002-11-12 02:52:50 by jwe]
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parents: 3974
diff changeset
620 @node Commands For History
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
621 @subsection Commands For Manipulating The History
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
622 @cindex command history
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
623 @cindex input history
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
624 @cindex history of commands
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
625
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
626 Octave normally keeps track of the commands you type so that you can
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
627 recall previous commands to edit or execute them again. When you exit
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
628 Octave, the most recent commands you have typed, up to the number
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
629 specified by the variable @code{history_size}, are saved in a file.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
630 When Octave starts, it loads an initial list of commands from the file
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
631 named by the variable @code{history_file}.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
632
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
633 Here are the commands for simple browsing and searching the history
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
634 list.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
635
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
636 @table @kbd
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
637 @item @key{LFD}
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
638 @itemx @key{RET}
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
639 Accept the current line regardless of where the cursor is. If the line is
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
640 non-empty, add it to the history list. If the line was a history
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
641 line, then restore the history line to its original state.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
642
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
643 @item C-p
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
644 Move `up' through the history list.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
645
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
646 @item C-n
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
647 Move `down' through the history list.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
648
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
649 @item M-<
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
650 Move to the first line in the history.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
651
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
652 @item M->
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
653 Move to the end of the input history, i.e., the line you are entering!
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
654
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
655 @item C-r
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
656 Search backward starting at the current line and moving `up' through
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
657 the history as necessary. This is an incremental search.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
658
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
659 @item C-s
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
660 Search forward starting at the current line and moving `down' through
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
661 the history as necessary.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
662 @end table
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
663
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
664 On most terminals, you can also use the up and down arrow keys in place
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
665 of @kbd{C-p} and @kbd{C-n} to move through the history list.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
666
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
667 In addition to the keyboard commands for moving through the history
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
668 list, Octave provides three functions for viewing, editing, and
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
669 re-running chunks of commands from the history list.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
670
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3294
diff changeset
671 @DOCSTRING(history)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
672
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3294
diff changeset
673 @DOCSTRING(edit_history)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
674
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3294
diff changeset
675 @DOCSTRING(run_history)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
676
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
677 @noindent
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
678 Octave also allows you customize the details of when, where, and how history
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
679 is saved.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
680
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
681 @DOCSTRING(saving_history)
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
682
11486
a1deab9a6e71 bash-like history control
Pascal Dupuis <Pascal.Dupuis@worldonline.be> and John W. Eaton <jwe@octave.org>
parents: 10846
diff changeset
683 @DOCSTRING(history_control)
a1deab9a6e71 bash-like history control
Pascal Dupuis <Pascal.Dupuis@worldonline.be> and John W. Eaton <jwe@octave.org>
parents: 10846
diff changeset
684
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3294
diff changeset
685 @DOCSTRING(history_file)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
686
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3294
diff changeset
687 @DOCSTRING(history_size)
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
688
6550
1b7a6061a05d [project @ 2007-04-20 07:40:26 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6549
diff changeset
689 @DOCSTRING(history_timestamp_format_string)
1b7a6061a05d [project @ 2007-04-20 07:40:26 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6549
diff changeset
690
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
691 @DOCSTRING(EDITOR)
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
692
4167
aae05d51353c [project @ 2002-11-12 02:52:50 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3974
diff changeset
693 @node Customizing readline
3428
5b77cf82393c [project @ 2000-01-14 02:54:53 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3402
diff changeset
694 @subsection Customizing @code{readline}
12175
2090995ca588 Correct en-dash,em-dash instances in docstrings.
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 11523
diff changeset
695 @cindex @code{~/.inputrc}
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
696 @cindex customizing @code{readline}
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
697 @cindex @code{readline} customization
3428
5b77cf82393c [project @ 2000-01-14 02:54:53 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3402
diff changeset
698
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
699 Octave uses the GNU Readline library for command-line editing and
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
700 history features. Readline is very flexible and can be modified through
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
701 a configuration file of commands (See the GNU Readline library for the
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
702 exact command syntax). The default configuration file is normally
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
703 @file{~/.inputrc}.
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
704
9134
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
705 Octave provides two commands for initializing Readline and thereby changing
a3739e27b017 Update section 2.4 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9133
diff changeset
706 the command line behavior.
3428
5b77cf82393c [project @ 2000-01-14 02:54:53 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3402
diff changeset
707
3439
3234a698073a [project @ 2000-01-14 09:51:14 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3428
diff changeset
708 @DOCSTRING(read_readline_init_file)
3428
5b77cf82393c [project @ 2000-01-14 02:54:53 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3402
diff changeset
709
8817
03b7f618ab3d include docstrings for new functions in the manual
John W. Eaton <jwe@octave.org>
parents: 8347
diff changeset
710 @DOCSTRING(re_read_readline_init_file)
03b7f618ab3d include docstrings for new functions in the manual
John W. Eaton <jwe@octave.org>
parents: 8347
diff changeset
711
4167
aae05d51353c [project @ 2002-11-12 02:52:50 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3974
diff changeset
712 @node Customizing the Prompt
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
713 @subsection Customizing the Prompt
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
714 @cindex prompt customization
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
715 @cindex customizing the prompt
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
716
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
717 The following variables are available for customizing the appearance of
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
718 the command-line prompts. Octave allows the prompt to be customized by
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
719 inserting a number of backslash-escaped special characters that are
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
720 decoded as follows:
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
721
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
722 @table @samp
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
723 @item \t
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
724 The time.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
725
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
726 @item \d
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
727 The date.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
728
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
729 @item \n
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
730 Begins a new line by printing the equivalent of a carriage return
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
731 followed by a line feed.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
732
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
733 @item \s
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
734 The name of the program (usually just @samp{octave}).
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
735
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
736 @item \w
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
737 The current working directory.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
738
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
739 @item \W
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
740 The basename of the current working directory.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
741
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
742 @item \u
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
743 The username of the current user.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
744
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
745 @item \h
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
746 The hostname, up to the first `.'.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
747
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
748 @item \H
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
749 The hostname.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
750
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
751 @item \#
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
752 The command number of this command, counting from when Octave starts.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
753
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
754 @item \!
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
755 The history number of this command. This differs from @samp{\#} by the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
756 number of commands in the history list when Octave starts.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
757
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
758 @item \$
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
759 If the effective UID is 0, a @samp{#}, otherwise a @samp{$}.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
760
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
761 @item \nnn
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
762 The character whose character code in octal is @var{nnn}.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
763
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
764 @item \\
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
765 A backslash.
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diff changeset
766 @end table
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diff changeset
767
3332
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diff changeset
768 @DOCSTRING(PS1)
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diff changeset
769
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
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diff changeset
770 @DOCSTRING(PS2)
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parents:
diff changeset
771
3332
7c03933635c6 [project @ 1999-11-02 06:57:12 by jwe]
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diff changeset
772 @DOCSTRING(PS4)
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diff changeset
773
4167
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diff changeset
774 @node Diary and Echo Commands
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diff changeset
775 @subsection Diary and Echo Commands
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
776 @cindex diary of commands and output
6939
46d1ad37d943 [project @ 2007-10-01 16:12:20 by jwe]
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parents: 6778
diff changeset
777 @cindex command and output logs
3294
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diff changeset
778 @cindex logging commands and output
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parents:
diff changeset
779 @cindex echoing executing commands
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parents:
diff changeset
780 @cindex command echoing
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parents:
diff changeset
781
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
782 Octave's diary feature allows you to keep a log of all or part of an
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
783 interactive session by recording the input you type and the output that
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parents:
diff changeset
784 Octave produces in a separate file.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
785
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diff changeset
786 @DOCSTRING(diary)
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diff changeset
787
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diff changeset
788 Sometimes it is useful to see the commands in a function or script as
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
789 they are being evaluated. This can be especially helpful for debugging
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diff changeset
790 some kinds of problems.
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diff changeset
791
3332
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diff changeset
792 @DOCSTRING(echo)
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diff changeset
793
3332
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diff changeset
794 @DOCSTRING(echo_executing_commands)
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diff changeset
795
4167
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diff changeset
796 @node Errors
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diff changeset
797 @section How Octave Reports Errors
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diff changeset
798 @cindex error messages
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parents:
diff changeset
799 @cindex messages, error
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diff changeset
800
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diff changeset
801 Octave reports two kinds of errors for invalid programs.
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parents:
diff changeset
802
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diff changeset
803 A @dfn{parse error} occurs if Octave cannot understand something you
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diff changeset
804 have typed. For example, if you misspell a keyword,
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805
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diff changeset
806 @example
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b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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diff changeset
807 octave:13> function y = f (x) y = x***2; endfunction
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bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
808 @end example
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parents:
diff changeset
809
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diff changeset
810 @noindent
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diff changeset
811 Octave will respond immediately with a message like this:
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
812
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
813 @example
9132
eb1747dbd360 Update help strings for command line options
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parents: 9051
diff changeset
814 @group
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diff changeset
815 parse error:
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diff changeset
816
8015
30629059b72d Update the manual to reflect the changes in error output
sh@sh-laptop
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diff changeset
817 syntax error
30629059b72d Update the manual to reflect the changes in error output
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diff changeset
818
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diff changeset
819 >>> function y = f (x) y = x***2; endfunction
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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diff changeset
820 ^
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eb1747dbd360 Update help strings for command line options
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diff changeset
821 @end group
3294
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822 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
823
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diff changeset
824 @noindent
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diff changeset
825 For most parse errors, Octave uses a caret (@samp{^}) to mark the point
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diff changeset
826 on the line where it was unable to make sense of your input. In this
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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diff changeset
827 case, Octave generated an error message because the keyword for
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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diff changeset
828 exponentiation (@code{**}) was misspelled. It marked the error at the
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
829 third @samp{*} because the code leading up to this was correct but the final
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
830 @samp{*} was not understood.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
831
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diff changeset
832 Another class of error message occurs at evaluation time. These
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
833 errors are called @dfn{run-time errors}, or sometimes
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57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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parents: 9032
diff changeset
834 @dfn{evaluation errors}, because they occur when your program is being
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
835 @dfn{run}, or @dfn{evaluated}. For example, if after correcting the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
836 mistake in the previous function definition, you type
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
837
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diff changeset
838 @example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
839 octave:13> f ()
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
840 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
841
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
842 @noindent
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diff changeset
843 Octave will respond with
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
844
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diff changeset
845 @example
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diff changeset
846 @group
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diff changeset
847 error: `x' undefined near line 1 column 24
8015
30629059b72d Update the manual to reflect the changes in error output
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diff changeset
848 error: called from:
30629059b72d Update the manual to reflect the changes in error output
sh@sh-laptop
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diff changeset
849 error: f at line 1, column 22
3294
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diff changeset
850 @end group
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parents: 9135
diff changeset
851 @end example
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diff changeset
852
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
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diff changeset
853 @noindent
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
854 This error message has several parts, and gives quite a bit of
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
855 information to help you locate the source of the error. The messages
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
856 are generated from the point of the innermost error, and provide a
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
857 traceback of enclosing expressions and function calls.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
858
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
859 In the example above, the first line indicates that a variable named
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
860 @samp{x} was found to be undefined near line 1 and column 24 of some
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
861 function or expression. For errors occurring within functions, lines
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
862 are counted from the beginning of the file containing the function
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
863 definition. For errors occurring outside of an enclosing function,
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
864 the line number indicates the input line number, which is usually displayed
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
865 in the primary prompt string.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
866
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
867 The second and third lines of the error message indicate that the error
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
868 occurred within the function @code{f}. If the function @code{f} had been
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
869 called from within another function, for example, @code{g}, the list of
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
870 errors would have ended with one more line:
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
871
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
872 @example
8015
30629059b72d Update the manual to reflect the changes in error output
sh@sh-laptop
parents: 7031
diff changeset
873 error: g at line 1, column 17
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
874 @end example
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parents:
diff changeset
875
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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parents: 9032
diff changeset
876 These lists of function calls make it fairly easy to trace the
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
877 path your program took before the error occurred, and to correct the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
878 error before trying again.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
879
4167
aae05d51353c [project @ 2002-11-12 02:52:50 by jwe]
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parents: 3974
diff changeset
880 @node Executable Octave Programs
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
881 @section Executable Octave Programs
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
882 @cindex executable scripts
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
883 @cindex scripts
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
884 @cindex batch processing
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
885 @cindex self contained programs
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
886 @cindex program, self contained
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
887 @cindex @samp{#!}
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
888
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
889 Once you have learned Octave, you may want to write self-contained
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
890 Octave scripts, using the @samp{#!} script mechanism. You can do this
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
891 on GNU systems and on many Unix systems @footnote{The @samp{#!}
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
892 mechanism works on Unix systems derived from Berkeley Unix, System V
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
893 Release 4, and some System V Release 3 systems.}.
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
894
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
895 Self-contained Octave scripts are useful when you want to write a
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
896 program which users can invoke without knowing that the program is
9135
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Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
897 written in the Octave language. Octave scripts are also used for batch
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
898 processing of data files. Once an algorithm has been developed and tested
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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diff changeset
899 in the interactive portion of Octave, it can be committed to an executable
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
900 script and used again and again on new data files.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
901
9135
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
902 As a trivial example of an executable Octave script, you might create a
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
903 text file named @file{hello}, containing the following lines:
3294
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parents:
diff changeset
904
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
905 @example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
906 @group
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
907 #! @var{octave-interpreter-name} -qf
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
908 # a sample Octave program
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
909 printf ("Hello, world!\n");
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
910 @end group
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jwe
parents:
diff changeset
911 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
912
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
913 @noindent
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
914 (where @var{octave-interpreter-name} should be replaced with the full
9135
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diff changeset
915 path and name of your Octave binary). Note that this will only work if
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
diff changeset
916 @samp{#!} appears at the very beginning of the file. After making the
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
917 file executable (with the @code{chmod} command on Unix systems), you can
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
918 simply type:
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
919
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
920 @example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
921 hello
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
922 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
923
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
924 @noindent
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
925 at the shell, and the system will arrange to run Octave as if you had
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
926 typed:
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
927
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
928 @example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
929 octave hello
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
930 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
931
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
932 The line beginning with @samp{#!} lists the full path and filename of an
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
933 interpreter to be run, and an optional initial command line argument to
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
934 pass to that interpreter. The operating system then runs the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
935 interpreter with the given argument and the full argument list of the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
936 executed program. The first argument in the list is the full file name
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
937 of the Octave executable. The rest of the argument list will either be
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
938 options to Octave, or data files, or both. The @samp{-qf} options are
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
939 usually specified in stand-alone Octave programs to prevent them from
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
940 printing the normal startup message, and to keep them from behaving
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
941 differently depending on the contents of a particular user's
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
942 @file{~/.octaverc} file. @xref{Invoking Octave from the Command Line}.
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
943
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
944 Note that some operating systems may place a limit on the number of
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
945 characters that are recognized after @samp{#!}. Also, the arguments
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
946 appearing in a @samp{#!} line are parsed differently by various
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
947 shells/systems. The majority of them group all the arguments together in one
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
948 string and pass it to the interpreter as a single argument. In this case, the
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
949 following script:
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
950
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
951 @example
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
952 @group
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
953 #! @var{octave-interpreter-name} -q -f # comment
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
954 @end group
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
955 @end example
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
956
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
957 @noindent
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
958 is equivalent to typing at the command line:
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
959
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
960 @example
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
961 @group
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
962 octave "-q -f # comment"
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
963 @end group
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
964 @end example
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
965
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
966 @noindent
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
967 which will produce an error message. Unfortunately, it is
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
968 not possible for Octave to determine whether it has been called from the
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
969 command line or from a @samp{#!} script, so some care is needed when using the
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
970 @samp{#!} mechanism.
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
971
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
972 Note that when Octave is started from an executable script, the built-in
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
973 function @code{argv} returns a cell array containing the command line
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
974 arguments passed to the executable Octave script, not the arguments
6481
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
975 passed to the Octave interpreter on the @samp{#!} line of the script.
89ed13fec6fe [project @ 2007-04-03 19:39:11 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6479
diff changeset
976 For example, the following program will reproduce the command line that
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
977 was used to execute the script, not @samp{-qf}.
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
978
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
979 @example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
980 @group
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
981 #! /bin/octave -qf
6479
2ee8293554a3 [project @ 2007-04-03 15:30:58 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6477
diff changeset
982 printf ("%s", program_name ());
6620
bf4bdc21dc8d [project @ 2007-05-14 17:35:46 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6556
diff changeset
983 arg_list = argv ();
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
984 for i = 1:nargin
6479
2ee8293554a3 [project @ 2007-04-03 15:30:58 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 6477
diff changeset
985 printf (" %s", arg_list@{i@});
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
986 endfor
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
987 printf ("\n");
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
988 @end group
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
989 @end example
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
990
4167
aae05d51353c [project @ 2002-11-12 02:52:50 by jwe]
jwe
parents: 3974
diff changeset
991 @node Comments
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
992 @section Comments in Octave Programs
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
993 @cindex comments
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
994 @cindex use of comments
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
995 @cindex documenting Octave programs
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
996
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
997 A @dfn{comment} is some text that is included in a program for the sake
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
998 of human readers, and which is NOT an executable part of the program.
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
999 Comments can explain what the program does, and how it works. Nearly all
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1000 programming languages have provisions for comments, because programs are
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1001 typically hard to understand without them.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1002
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1003 @menu
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1004 * Single Line Comments::
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1005 * Block Comments::
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1006 * Comments and the Help System::
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1007 @end menu
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1008
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1009 @node Single Line Comments
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1010 @subsection Single Line Comments
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1011 @cindex @samp{#}
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1012 @cindex @samp{%}
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1013
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1014 In the Octave language, a comment starts with either the sharp sign
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1015 character, @samp{#}, or the percent symbol @samp{%} and continues to the
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1016 end of the line. Any text following the sharp sign or percent symbol is
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1017 ignored by the Octave interpreter and not executed. The following example
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1018 shows whole line and partial line comments.
10828
322f43e0e170 Grammarcheck .txi documentation files.
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 10613
diff changeset
1019
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1020 @example
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1021 @group
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1022 function countdown
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1023 # Count down for main rocket engines
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1024 disp(3);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1025 disp(2);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1026 disp(1);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1027 disp("Blast Off!"); # Rocket leaves pad
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1028 endfunction
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1029 @end group
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1030 @end example
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1031
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1032 @node Block Comments
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1033 @subsection Block Comments
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
1034 @cindex block comments
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1035 @cindex multi-line comments
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1036 @cindex @samp{#@{}
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1037 @cindex @samp{%@{}
3294
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
diff changeset
1038
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1039 Entire blocks of code can be commented by enclosing the code between
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1040 matching @samp{#@{} and @samp{#@}} or @samp{%@{} and @samp{%@}} markers.
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1041 For example,
10828
322f43e0e170 Grammarcheck .txi documentation files.
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 10613
diff changeset
1042
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1043 @example
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1044 @group
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1045 function quick_countdown
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1046 # Count down for main rocket engines
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1047 disp(3);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1048 #@{
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1049 disp(2);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1050 disp(1);
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1051 #@}
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1052 disp("Blast Off!"); # Rocket leaves pad
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1053 endfunction
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1054 @end group
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1055 @end example
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1056
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1057 @noindent
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1058 will produce a very quick countdown from '3' to 'Blast Off' as the
9135
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
diff changeset
1059 lines "@code{disp(2);}" and "@code{disp(1);}" won't be executed.
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1060
12680
1acead61c527 doc: Document that block comment markers must appear alone on a line (bug #33297)
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 12545
diff changeset
1061 The block comment markers must appear alone as the only characters on a line
14038
b0cdd60db5e5 doc: Grammarcheck documentation ahead of 3.6.0 release.
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 12691
diff changeset
1062 (excepting whitespace) in order to be parsed correctly.
12680
1acead61c527 doc: Document that block comment markers must appear alone on a line (bug #33297)
Rik <octave@nomad.inbox5.com>
parents: 12545
diff changeset
1063
9035
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
diff changeset
1064 @node Comments and the Help System
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1065 @subsection Comments and the Help System
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1066 @cindex documenting functions
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1067 @cindex documenting user scripts
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1068 @cindex help, user-defined functions
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1069
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
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1070 The @code{help} command (@pxref{Getting Help}) is able to find the first
9135
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parents: 9134
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1071 block of comments in a function and return those as a documentation
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9134
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1072 string. This means that the same commands used to get help
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parents: 9134
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1073 on built-in functions are available for properly formatted user-defined
b04f95fabbf9 Update sections 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 of basics.txi
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parents: 9134
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1074 functions. For example, after defining the function @code{f} below,
10828
322f43e0e170 Grammarcheck .txi documentation files.
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1075
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parents:
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1076 @example
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jwe
parents:
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1077 @group
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
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1078 function xdot = f (x, t)
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
jwe
parents:
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1079
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1080 # usage: f (x, t)
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1081 #
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1082 # This function defines the right-hand
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parents:
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1083 # side functions for a set of nonlinear
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1084 # differential equations.
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1085
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1086 r = 0.25;
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1087 @dots{}
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1088 endfunction
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1089 @end group
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1090 @end example
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1091
10846
a4f482e66b65 Grammarcheck more of the documentation.
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diff changeset
1092 @noindent
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1093 the command @kbd{help f} produces the output
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parents:
diff changeset
1094
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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diff changeset
1095 @example
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1096 @group
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1097 usage: f (x, t)
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jwe
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diff changeset
1098
9035
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parents: 9032
diff changeset
1099 This function defines the right-hand
3294
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parents:
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1100 side functions for a set of nonlinear
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
diff changeset
1101 differential equations.
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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1102 @end group
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1103 @end example
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1104
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parents: 9134
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1105 Although it is possible to put comment lines into keyboard-composed,
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parents: 9134
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1106 throw-away Octave programs, it usually isn't very useful because the
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parents:
diff changeset
1107 purpose of a comment is to help you or another person understand the
bfe1573bd2ae [project @ 1999-10-19 10:06:07 by jwe]
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parents:
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1108 program at a later time.
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1109
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parents: 9032
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1110 The @code{help} parser currently only recognizes single line comments
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
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1111 (@pxref{Single Line Comments}) and not block comments for the initial
57649dcecb55 Documentation cleanup of basics.texi
Rik <rdrider0-list@yahoo.com>
parents: 9032
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1112 help text.